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废水处理种植蔬菜,这道菜还能吃吗?_对手你好网

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废水处理种植蔬菜,这道菜还能吃吗?

    本文来自微信公众号:我是科学家iScientist(ID:IamaScientist),作者:小白兔,编辑:Yuki众所周知,现在我们正处在人口爆炸的时代。人越来越多,需要吃的东西也越来越多,种粮食、蔬菜需要的水资源也越来越多。与此同时,清洁的水资源却越来越有限。怎么办呢?有人就想到:不如我们变废为宝,处理一下废水来浇菜地吧!实际上,2004年就有调查发现,在以色列,再生水(经过处理的废水)已经占了农业灌溉用水的半壁江山;在西班牙,17%的灌溉用水是再生水;在加州,这个数字则是6%。谁知道这些菜是由什么水浇灌长成的?图片来源:Daniel Fazio, Unsplash为了回答这一问题,科研人员们展开了一系列研究。药物污染首先出场的是以色列的科学家,他们的研究对象是废水浇灌蔬菜中残留的药物:卡马西平(一种抗惊厥药物)。这种药物在再生水中普遍被检出,在土壤中也能存留很久,还能被植物吸收。再生水中的卡马西平通过蔬菜进入了人体。图片来源:参考文献[5]在为期一周的实验中,研究者们召集了34名志愿者,随机地给一部分人吃再生水灌溉的蔬菜,另一部分则吃净水灌溉的蔬菜,并持续监测志愿者尿液中卡马西平及其代谢物的含量,同时检测了不同灌溉方式下的蔬菜。在参与实验的蔬菜中,黄瓜、生菜、欧芹、辣椒和西红柿都是再生水灌溉的受害者,再生水灌溉的蔬菜内的卡马西平的含量比净水灌溉的显著增高。只有胡萝卜勉强合格。研究者们还发现,虽然部分志愿者在实验开始时,尿液中就出现了卡马西平(由于个人健康原因正在服药),但食用净水灌溉蔬菜的志愿者们尿液中卡马西平的量并没有变化。也就是说,在这些志愿者当中,实验开始时尿液中已经出现卡马西平的人,在实验结束时尿液卡马西平的含量并没有升高,实验开始时尿液中没有卡马西平的人,在实验结束时也没有出现尿液含卡马西平的情况。而食用再生水灌溉蔬菜的志愿者们,不论实验开始时尿液中是否出现卡马西平,在实验结束时无一例外地都在尿检中发现了卡马西平。当然,因食用再生水灌溉蔬菜而在尿液中出现药物的量远低于服药时的水平,但是这依然反映出再生水灌溉使消费者们暴露在了药物污染中。病毒感染然后是来自美国的病毒科学家,他们使用数学模型,评估不同人群食用未经消毒的再生水灌溉蔬菜(花椰菜、包菜、黄瓜和生菜)后暴露于肠道病毒中的风险。他们发现不同人群食用蔬菜的习惯也大相径庭:亚洲人吃蔬菜最多,美国本土印第安人明显少吃包菜和生菜,而黑人黄瓜吃得少。市场上琳琅满目的蔬菜。图片来源:Lou Liebau,Unsplash尽管如此,各类人群通过食用蔬菜感染肠道病毒的风险差距却很小,但亚洲人的确因为吃菜最多而风险最大。由于这项研究并没有将蔬菜处理方式纳入考虑范围,一并默认生吃。所以理论上亚洲人因为良好的洗菜和炒菜习惯可以扳回一局。重金属污染接下来是来自亚非两洲的重金属研究者们,摄入重金属可能对人体造成严重后果,除了人们熟知的致癌,还会导致神经、骨骼、循环系统、内分泌以及免疫系统的损伤,并且可能破坏肝、肾、肺的正常功能。如果这些蔬菜中含有重金属,它们鲜艳的颜色还能唤起你的食欲吗?图片来源:Louis Hansel, Unsplash在肯尼亚的锡卡,科学家们对Makongeni市场的再生水灌溉蔬菜进行了重金属离子(铜、锌、镉、镍、铅)检测,一同被检测的还有淤泥和再生水。这次参与检测的羽衣甘蓝、菠菜和香菜都合格了,符合世界卫生组织推荐的重金属含量要求。然而科学家强调,定期清理淤泥对于防止重金属离子富集,造成作物污染十分重要。在孟加拉国的研究与锡卡类似,检测了27个样本,9种再生水灌溉作物中铅、镍和砷的含量,结果全部合格。科学家们发现,铅含量最高的是苋菜叶,其他重金属含量最高的蔬菜是黄麻叶。重金属含量最低、最安全的作物则是青木瓜。而在阿尔及利亚的很多地方,未被处理的污水流入了河流,被当地农场直接用于灌溉诸如生菜、胡萝卜等多种生食蔬菜,因此政府立法强制进行污水处理,再生水方可进行灌溉,以降低农产品和环境中的病原体和污染物。研究者们就选择了一个有污水处理厂的城市,检测再生水灌溉作物(土豆、西红柿和黄瓜)中铜、锌、铅、镉的含量,并与阿尔及利亚的其他地区农作物对比。结果出乎意料:再生水灌溉蔬菜的重金属含量反而比别处低,食用这种蔬菜可以减少高达85%的重金属日摄入量。这大概就是“只要处理做得好,废水也能变成宝”?污水处理厂。图片来源:Ivan Bandura, Unsplash蔬菜中的营养成分和化学物质还有的废水可能不用处理就是宝,例如啤酒废水,理论上不仅不含有毒物质,还含有很多有机物和植物生长所需的营养。在山东某啤酒厂附近,就有研究者们设置了三处试验田:清水灌溉、废水灌溉和清废混合灌溉进行,他们种了韭菜、大葱、小白菜、莴苣、土豆、包菜六种作物。啤酒厂的一角。图片来源:Elevate,Unsplash在丰收的季节,研究者们检测了三块试验田作物的维生素C、硝酸盐和亚硝酸盐的含量,发现啤酒废水灌溉能显著提升莴苣、土豆和包菜的维生素C含量,这看起来是个好消息。不过另一方面,废水提高了小白菜、莴苣和包菜中硝酸盐的含量,增加了韭菜和土豆的亚硝酸盐含量。只有大葱则坚定地表示:不管你浇什么水,我该怎么长还怎么长。污水中的塑料瓶。图片来源:Louis Hansel,Unsplash总地来说,现今的人类是很难绕过废水处理后成为农业用水的生产模式了。诸多研究发现表明,再生水灌溉有利有弊,不能简单地一概而论,关键问题也很清晰:污水该如何处理?处理后的再生水是否能达到灌溉标准?中国沈阳、天津、白银都曾饱受污水灌溉留下的重金属污染之苦,像这样使用未经处理或即使经过处理也未达标的富含污染物的农业用水,无异于饮鸩止渴。实例表明,只有处理得当,再生水才能在保证人类健康的前提下稍稍缓解地球水资源的压力。参考文献:[1]Cherfi, A., Achour, M., Cherfi, M., Otmani, S., & Morsli, A. (2015). Health risk assessment of heavy metals through consumption of vegetables irrigated with reclaimed urban wastewater in Algeria. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 98, 245-252.[2]Hamilton, A., Stagnitti, F., Premier, R., Boland, A., & Kroiss, H. (2006). Is the risk of illness through consuming vegetables irrigated with reclaimed wastewater different for different population groups? Water Science & Technology, 54(1-12), 379-386.[3]Mohammad Shakhaoat Hossain, Fahad Ahmed, Abu Tareq Mohammad Abdullah, Mohammad Ahedul Akbor, & Mohammad Aminul Ahsan. (2015). [4]Public Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Uptake by Vegetables Grown at a Waste-water-Irrigated Site in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Journal of Health and Pollution, 5(9), 78-85.[5]Njuguna, Makokha, Yan, Gituru, Wang, Wang (2018) Health risk assessment by consumption of vegetables irrigated with reclaimed waste water: A case study in Thika (Kenya). Journal of environmental management231:576-581[6]Paltiel, O., Fedorova, G., Tadmor, G., Kleinstern, G., Maor, Y., & Chefetz, B. (2016). Human Exposure to Wastewater-Derived Pharmaceuticals in Fresh Produce: A Randomized Controlled Trial Focusing on Carbamazepine. Environmental Science & Technology, 50(8), 4476-82.[7]李光德,于金凤,朱鲁生,王玉军,徐玉新,姜咏栋。 啤酒废水灌溉对6种蔬菜硝酸盐亚硝酸盐含量的影响。1995, 14(2): 56-58.

    

    

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On the basis of the original allowable deduction of "three insurance and one fund", children's education, continuing education, interest on housing loans, housing rent, support for the elderly and serious illness medical treatment are added. The six new deductions are all related to people's livelihood, sufficiently reflecting the government's determination in the current economic environment, which is in line with the purpose of tax reduction and fee reduction at the Central Economic Conference on Friday. Similarly, in the current economic conference, the government faced the difficulties of domestic and foreign troubles directly, strengthened a series of policy means, and solved the problems pertinently. 在过去的18年中,整个风险投资行业已经深深地影响了。在过去19年的经济预期仍处于低潮,和行业机构需要提前准备。由于萎缩的估值,从长期来看,这一时期也是优质的项目一个很好的出发时间,这就考验投资者的专业性。我们坚信,创投行业将变得更健康后,经历了艰难的时期。第四象限(信用象限)-商品住宅库存继续下降。集体土地不再是“必须为国有”。根据统计局的数据显示,从一月至十一月,全国房地产开发投资11兆83亿元,比去年同期增长9.7%,与增长率在一月至十月同。其中,住宅投资7兆8027亿元,同比增长13.6%,而增长率下降了0.1个百分点。对房地产开发投资70.9%住宅投资账户。In terms of sales, from January to November, the sales area of commercial housing was 1486.04 million square meters, up 1.4% year-on-year, and the growth rate dropped 0.8 percentage points compared with January to October. The sales volume of commercial housing was 1295.08 billion yuan, up 12.1%, and the growth rate dropped 0.4 percentage points. In terms of inventory, at the end of November, the area for sale of commercial housing was 526.27 million square meters, which was 1.62 million square meters less than that at the end of October. 从统计局公布的宏观数据,可以看出,房地产市场十一月维持稳步的发展,但是从最新的二手房价格数据,近70%的全国城市房价继续恢复几个月的势头,这足以证明国内住房市场T有大幅降温调控背景下。与以前不同的是,在第三、第四线城市已显着扩大最近房价的下降,这意味着赶上第一和第二层下降。这晚的下降就不难解释。首先,这是周期性旋转的结果。首先,当一线城市的崛起,他们带头,然后第二,第三和第四线城市跟进,反过来,他们跌倒时,有一种自然的秩序;另一方面,调控政策收紧。The earliest regul怎么回事啊_桥检车网ation of the first-tier cities began in the "930 New Deal" in 2016. So far, the short-term r基金季报_广州限价房网estrictions are still firmly pressed on the property market in the northern upper and deeper regions, while the third and fourth-tier cities only introduced part of the regulation policies in the second half of this year, so the impact of regulation on housing prices in the region was revealed. At the end of 2018, China's land system ushered in substantive changes again. 最近,修改新的土地管理办法发布。最有趣的内容可以概括如下:非农建设用地不再是`必须是国有的,工商小产权房将被修正,及相关法律法规的同时,修订。这意味着集体土地不需要经过“国有化”过程中的冗余,但可以直接上市的工业和商业用房建设。这意味着,在地方政府土地市场供给方的垄断有望被打破,和地方政府的财政收入将大大降低。然而,直接加入合适的集体土地进入市场将大大减少工业和商业用地成本,直接受益的房地产企业的发展。然而,这种土地制度改革,同时严格限制实施范围,住宅项目被排除在外,也就是说,集体土地直接进入市场,可以不建的住宅产品,现有住宅的小产权房不能“纠正”。Therefore, the impact of the new land regulations on the housing market is relatively small, and its main impact will be the future industrial and commercial real estate market. Foreign Exchange Plate: The negotiations between the White House and the Federal Reserve went smoothly. The RMB market rose steadily with the mid-price, rising 210 points to a new high in nearly two weeks. As the U.S. government was in partial shutdown and the White House and the Federal Reserve confronted openly, investors cut exposure to high-risk assets and the dollar fell to a four-month low against the yen. On December 25, the yuan rose steadily against the dollar in early Tuesday morning, rising 210 points to a new high in nearly two weeks. Overnight USD index was depressed by multiple factors, while Sino-US negotiations continued relatively smoothly, and demand for foreign exchange settlement was partly boosted; however, major global financial markets were closed during Christmas, early market liquidity was lower than before, and the RMB trading range was slightly upward. Whether the Federal Reserve can maintain its independence and fears that the US economy may fall into recession are likely to put pressure on the Dollar bull, which eases the external pressure on the RMB and boosts the market demand for foreign exchange settlement. However, whether China and the United States can reach a trade agreement remains a variable, and it is still difficult for the RMB to appreciate or depreciate substantially, so the idea of interval operation can be maintained in the short term. The dollar fell against the yen and the Swiss Franc on Tuesday as investors cut exposure to risky assets amid a partial halt in the federal government and signs of conflict between white officials and the Federal Reserve. 美国股市星期一下降了2%以上,而石油价格下跌超过6%,星期一的假期驱动的最后一天,在华盛顿的情况,加深了明年的全球经济增长放缓investors'concerns。美国股市波动率指数升至36.1,自2月6日触及50.30简要的最高水平。美国总统特朗普抨击美联储星期一,称它是“唯一的问题”的美国经济。前几天,据报道,特朗普曾讨论解雇美联储主席鲍威尔。当股票市场下跌加剧,美国财政部长Nouchin举行了一次会议,星期一与总统金融市场工作组,俗称暴跌保护小组。但召开这样的会议,通常只在严重的市场动荡的时代,对安抚市场没有影响。这可能削弱投资者的信心,其结果是适得其反。美国总统特朗普和国会的民主党领导人互相指责星期一对美国政府部分关闭并没有采取具体的行动来解决问题的迹象。全球股市大幅下跌以来,十月初在中国和美国之间的贸易争端的担忧,加息和特朗普的减税政策。许多市场被关闭在星期二的圣诞假期,而其他货币交易地。欧元兑美元几乎持平在1.1410美元,上星期一上涨0.33%。商品货币是新的压力,石油价格下跌超过6%,星期一下。中间价人民币兑美元是6.8919元,美国6.9006元今天最后一天。试交易市场观察来源于独家全球资产管理模型和误差的分析与研究。GAM俱乐部简介GAM(全球资产管理)俱乐部依托中金大金融平台的优势,如期货、信托、保险、银行和产业基金,建立投资者与投资者的沟通渠道,得到强有力的支持,许多金融机构和知名大学参与ties, collides with the spark of wisdom, and promotes new financial capital, new technology and new products. 新模型。GAM Club brings together experts from futures, options, stocks, equity, real estate, foreign exchange, bonds, gold and other industries to discuss investment opportunities and asset allocation trends in the global market, deduce algorithms and models, improve the efficiency of asset allocation and reduce asset management risks. Strategic Trading Department is mainly responsible for global asset management model and strategy research and development, and provides futures brokerage, investment consulting, trading training, fee-paying research and report business. Team members are mainly composed of PhD, Master and Bachelor of Finance, Economics, Mathematics and Computer. The proportion of PhD and Master is more than 60%. Youth, professionalism and high quality are the symbol of the team. 多年来,它一直被评为公司的优秀部门,是中粮期货增长最快的部门。试验和错误的交易受到了广泛的好评,因为它是在2012推出市场,并已经成为行业知名品牌,具有较高知名度和影响力。的scjy专业交易能力的培训课程,这是由多方共同推出,提供从入门到高级专家对实际交易的目的,课程的不同阶段。它致力于培训和交易能力的培养。它已经帮助许多客户提高他们的交易情况,走上职业交易之路。它已经成为期货行业第一培训品牌在人员方面的大小。K线聚类模型和市场结构的图像识别模型的人工智能技术的发展是在期货行业的领先地位,在该领域领先的研究趋势。风险:张耀文期货投资咨询证书号z0013564王俊期货投资咨询证书号z0013699彭书肆投资咨询资格证书z0013758号1。这一战略的观点是基于提供给研究人员的信息,与实际结果可能大不相同由于条件有限。投资者必须独立做出交易决策。本公司不保证交易的结果。2。市场的不确定性,和过去的战略观点一致,不保证当前的战略观点的正确性。公司和其他研究人员可以从这些策略表达了不同的意见。三。在法律允许的范围内,一个公司或附属机构可能涉及的品种进行交易,也可能为其他公司的交易提供服务。责任编辑:吴华张

关键词:上海大学武保处,拓展训练图片,时政网责任编辑:宗丁石
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